In medieval times the range of the wolf covered a large part of Europe. Since then human settlement together with constant hunting has resulted in complete extermination of the wolf in most areas. Records of wolves can be found in many places, for example, in the British Isles. Records many centuries old are still extant. Probably one of the earliest references is contained in a manuscript at the British Museum.
A genealogy of Anglo-Saxon dynasties records the East Anglian founder of a dynasty called “Wuffa” and his tribe, who were known as “Wuffings” (Wolf people). These genealogies were written in A.D. 800 and Wuffa is thought to have ruled about 575 A.D.
In the famous ship burial at Sutton Hoo in Suffolk, a purse was discovered; the lid was decorated with gold and garnets and decorations showing wolves confronting a human figure. The 37 coins contained in the purse date the burial as being circa 620 A.D. and not later than 640 A.D. No body was discovered in the ship burial though some archaeologists feel the depiction of wolves on the purse reveals a connection with the Wuffingas.
The Wuffingas themselves were said to originate in Scandinavia, where ship burial was practiced. It is interesting to note a later descendant of the Wuffingas is thought to have become “Bretwalda” or overlord, of Britain and it is possible that the ship burial at Sutton Hoo commemorates this descendant.
It is impossible to say how widespread the distribution of wolves was in Anglo-Saxon times. Wolf bones have been reported in many excavations and Anglo Saxon charters frequently mention such items as “Wolf-pits”.
Woolpit, again in Suffolk, is said to derive its name from a corruption of the word “Wolfpit” and this village is recorded in the Doomsday book of 1087 A.D. as “Wolfpeta”.
Many Anglo-Saxon names also incorporate the word “wulf”. Wulfnoth, Wulfgar, Wulfhere, Wulfstan and Wulfhelm are but a few names of real persons. Ethelwulf was a common name and the famous Scandinavian saga “Beowulf” has the same suffix.
Another Anglo-Saxon reference to wolves concerns Constantine of Wales, who is said to have paid tribute to King Edgar in the form of 300 wolf skins annually. William of Malmesbury recorded a similar tale noting that King Edgar of England demanded 300 wolf skins a year from King Idwal of Wales (circa 985 A.D.) as tribute.
However, these numbers may be regarded as a little suspect; there would probably have not been enough wolves available to fulfil the demand and at least one researcher states the first record of the tribute demand was not written until approximately 140 years after these events.
The various Norman kings (reigning from 1066 to 1152 A.D.) employed servants as wolf hunters and many held lands granted on condition they fulfilled this duty. It is possible that both the “wolfpits” and the land grants lasted longer than the wolves in England and such grants became almost sinecures or the service was rendered by other means.
However, in 1212 a bounty of 5 shillings was paid to a person in Fremantle Hampshire, Nr. Kingsclere, for a wolf caught in that neighbourhood. In medieval times 5 shillings would represent an enormous sum to a villager and would be a welcome addition to his income – a real bounty.
Mentions of wolves continue for a number of years after 1212 but in 1281, Edward I (reigned 1272-1307) ordered the extermination of all wolves in England. He personally employed one Peter Corbet, with instructions to “take and destroy all the wolves he could find” in the counties of “Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Shropshire and Staffordshire” rather a large area to cover by horse transport especially in the areas near Welsh Marches (the border country between England and Wales) where wolves were more common than in the southern areas of England.
Coppicing by landholders was encouraged as it was said to deter “wolves and other malefactors”. The people living in the area of the Forest of Dean were particularly involved in this activity.
The campaign against wolves by Edward I was largely successful and references to them became fewer. At Abbey Dore, near Hay in Herefordshire, an iron wolf head is supposedly a memorial to Edward’s campaign. A report that in 1290 a wolf or wolves had destroyed some deer in a park – location unknown – seems to be the last reference.
By 1300 a certain Reverend William, reputed to be a doctor of some kind, found him self in trouble with the then English Customs Officers when he tried to import the bodies of “four putrid wolves” which he said were required for medical purposes and which could not be obtained in England.
A further odd reference appears circa 1394-1396, when the monks of Whitby paid 10 shillings and 9 pence for the “tawing of 14 wolf skins”. Possibly wolves did survive in the wilder parts of north-east Yorkshire until late in the 14th century but no other evidence is noted.
Thus there are in London, 120,000; in Manchester, 40,000; in Liverpool, 34,000; Bristol, 24,000; Glasgow, 40,000; Edinburgh, 29,000, poor Irish people. These people having grown up almost. without civilisation, accustomed from youth to every sort of privation, rough, intemperate, and improvident, bring all their brutal habits with them among a class of the English population which has, in truth, little inducement to cultivate education and morality. Let us hear Thomas Carlyle upon this subject: 
“The wild Milesian  features, looking false ingenuity, restlessness, unreason, misery, and mockery, salute you on all highways and byways. The English coachman, as he whirls past, lashes the Milesian with his whip, curses him with his tongue; the Milesian is holding out his hat to beg. He is the sorest evil this country has to strive with. In his rags and laughing savagery, he is there to undertake all work that can be done by mere strength of hand and back — for wages that will purchase him potatoes. He needs only salt for condiment, he lodges to his mind in any pig-hutch or dog-hutch, roosts in outhouses, and wears a suit of tatters, the getting on and off of which is said to be a difficult operation, transacted only in festivals and the high tides of the calendar. The Saxon-man, if he cannot work on these terms, finds no work. The uncivilised Irishman, not by his strength, but by the opposite of strength, drives the Saxon native out, takes possession in his room. There abides he, in his squalor and unreason, in his falsity and drunken violence, as the ready-made nucleus of degradation and disorder. Whoever struggles, swimming with difficulty, may now find an example how the human being can exist not swimming, but sunk…. That the condition of the lower multitude of English labourers approximates more and more to that of the Irish, competing with them in all the markets: that whatsoever labour, to which mere strength with little skill will suffice, is to be done, will be done not at the English price, but at an approximation to the Irish price; at a price superior as yet to the Irish, that is, superior to scarcity of potatoes for thirty weeks yearly; superior, yet hourly, with the arrival of every new steamboat, sinking nearer to an equality with that.”
“Together [with scientists from Linköping University] we tested the scent molecule on blood-sucking flies, wolves, mice and humans, so it was a truly interdisciplinary project,” senior author Johan Lundstrom said.
When the wolves got a whiff of the scent, which had been wiped onto a piece of wood, they “licked, bit and protected it as if it were an actual prey.” Human subjects had the exact opposite reaction.
They recoiled, as if to avoid E2D, even though the scent was not perceived to be unpleasant, their hands also perspired more. Furthermore, while exposed to the smell, participants were asked to pinpoint faces that could be perceived as emotive on a computer screen, their ability to do this improved as a result.
According to scientists: “Previous studies have shown that this ability is augmented in threatening situations, suggesting that people unconsciously perceive the smell of blood as a threat.”
“E2D seems to activate our entire general defence system,”study lead author Dr Artin Arshamian said. “Our findings concur with paleontological data showing that our earliest relatives, the early primates, were almost certainly insectivores and were primarily the prey of other animals. Modern humans are without doubt predators, but we probably evolved from a prey species, and some aspects of this characteristic remain,” he added.
There are behavioural differences, on average, between the sexes – few would dispute that. Where the debate rages is over how much these differences are the result of social pressures versus being rooted in our biology (the answer often is that there is a complex interaction between the two).
For example, when differences are observed between girls and boys, such as in preferences for play, one possibility is that this is partly or wholly because of the contrasting ways that girls and boys are influenced by their peers, parents and other adults (because of the ideas they have about how the sexes ought to behave). Studying non-human primates allows us to identity sex differences in behavior that can’t be due to human culture and gender beliefs.
Learning more about the biological roots of behavioural sex differences should not be used as an excuse for harmful stereotyping or discrimination, but it can help us better understand our human nature and the part that evolved sex differences play in some of the most important issues that affect our lives, including around diversity, relationships, mental health, crime and education.
Earlier this year, as part of a special issue of the Journal of Neuroscience Research – titled “An Issue Whose Time Has Come: Sex/Gender Influences on Nervous System Function” – Elizabeth Lonsdorf at Franklin and Marshall College published a useful mini-review detailing some of the sex differences observed among monkey and ape infants and juveniles.
“Many sex differences in behavioral development exist in nonhuman primates,” she writes, “despite a comparative lack of sex-biased treatment by mothers and other social partners”. Here is a digested account of five of these behavioural sex differences:
The start of my redpill journey
The feminine-primary social order conditions us all–Western Buddhists included
“Things that are easy to swallow are hardly ever nutritious.”
Nothing of worth ever begins as something popular. Something of outstanding worth usually has to make its way gradually, moving on timid steps, out into a hostile, indifferent world. It doesn’t bolt into the spotlight like an extravagant starburst. It moves on hesitant steps, always extremely vigilant, because on all sides looms The Popular which can overwhelm it or lead it astray. A work of extraordinary merit usually it takes a great deal of time to gain its footing, and it requires a lot of exposure, analysis and comparison before a book or a painting or a play or a beautiful building are recognized as being “the real thing.”
That recognition can be as slow as a glacier’s progress. When the Italian Dante finished his The Divine Comedy,” the critical opinion of the day damned it as “Gothic obscurantism.” It isn’t. It is measured, stately and beautiful. Today, it is extolled as one of the great narrative poems in Western Civilization. It took 150 years for the greatness of Shakespeare to emerge, thanks to the Romantics. Even The Iliad, Homer’s masterpiece, required a long span of time before its imperishable beauty was praised. The Greeks of Homer’s time were so corrupt, they even denied that the Trojan War took place. Homer’s work was dismissed as mere fraudulence.
Great art is like a message in a bottle. The heaving sea is populated with acres of bottles bobbing on the swells. A curious onlooker can idly fish out a bottle and take out the message. If the message has no interest for him, he lets it fall into the surf. If it appears to have brief interest, he may perhaps hand it to his neighbor who might gaze at it for a minute, then discard it. This is where endowments of intelligence and gifts of emotional depth and perceptiveness begin to play a part. Say we have a mind that consistently spends its time reading, observing, reflecting, and meditating. Over time, he or she is going to develop skills based on those activities. He or she will lead two lives, the personal and the intellectual. The skills from the latter depend on the growth of insight, vivid interests and focused observation.
So what happens when a richly endowed mind comes across the message? It will not read the message idly, but with genuine curiosity. If it is a trifle, he throws it away, but if it isn’t, he will consider it, examine it, create a scale of importance, rate it, and if he has friends of similar temperament and gifts, will pass it on to them. In other words, the reaction of his friends will vary according to their brains and emotional depth, but it isn’t likely that they would want to discard it without a hearing. Soon some preliminary agreement will be forged about the worth of the message. Analytic comparisons take place. That is how fame is established and spread. Fame depends on convincing the skeptical.
Following on from Keith’s comment at the end of previous post,
Seems there’s a depopulation agenda:
– divide & rule by getting us to kill each other off
– push harmful diets
– bad pharma
– kill off the rest
A good example is the addition of fluoride to drinking water.
Regarding that, there’s a number of alternative options a person can choose from.
First, that the authorities were genuinely concerned about tooth decay as a public health issue, so, in good faith, they came up with that plan and implemented it.
Second, that the authorities wanted to keep the masses dumbed down and under control, so they thought up this fluoridation scheme because fluoride causes a degree of brain damage or mental impairment and helps to subdue the masses, keeping them passive and stupid.
Third, it was just a way for some big powerful corporations to get rid of a troublesome poisonous industrial waste product at minimum expense, regardless of any effects it might have on health or environment.
I’ve seen arguments in support of all of those three, and there may well be others.
I do not know what the truth really is. People have researched this stuff and come to various conclusions, and which conclusions you accept or believe will depend upon the degree of confidence and trust you have in the particular researchers.
For me personally, it remains something of an open question. I gather that it is documented that the German Nazis dosed the inmates of the concentration camps with fluoride in the water supply, because it kept those people subdued and docile.
Here, upon this mountain where I live, there is no public water supply available, so I am not partaking of whatever additives the authorities are giving to the urban masses.
On the negative side, my water, when it arrives in the house after falling as rain upon the top of the mountain, is very acidic. So much so that it dissolves the copper pipes and they become very thin, and so I have replaced a lot with some kind of plastic pipe.
In so far as I understand what’s going on, the acidity is because the rain water that falls from the sky subsequently soaks through peat and stones and soil which makes it acidic.
There is also a theoretical possibility that the rain is already acidic before it reaches the ground, as the result of industrial air pollution. I have not heard about that recently, but a few years back there was talk about putting lime into local rivers, because they were becoming too acidic for the fish to thrive.
As with so many of these issues, it is extremely difficult to know whom to trust and whom to believe.
In a very small region like Wales, it would be nice to assume that the folk who occupy positions of power and responsibility are benign, well-informed and concerned for the well-being of the general population, because that population includes their own families, relatives, friends and neighbours. But at a larger scale, why would anyone care ?
As I understand it, one of the reasons why we have religions is to instil into people, preferably at an early age, some sort of moral code that gets them to recognise the difference between right and wrong. Thus everyone in a given soceity benefits, because they can live their daily lives without having to waste time being suspicious that their fellows are trying to deceive, trick, exploit, harm or kill them.
I think that factor is essential for any harmonious and successful society. But it probably only works up to a certain scale and where the soceity is fairly homogenous.
How many people do you, can you, actually care about ?
‘We have no idea what relationships are…’
Plato said that the ideal size for a democracy is five thousand three hundred…
There are some people who claim that the planet is over-populated and numbers should be reduced, because we are consuming and polluting several times more than is sustainable.
Other people (or maybe the same people ?) are keen to allow open borders to Europe and the USA, where the average number of children per family is now quite low, and the incomers, from African and Islamic countries have much larger families, sometimes one husband with more than one wife, and the women have six or eight children each. This is a sort of sneaky ‘population warfare’. Instead of conquering with an invading army, civilians immigrate and then out-breed the indigenous folk and thus eventually replace them.
I have been progressively sucked into the daily tweet storm, the avalanche of gossip, information and comments that never stops.
The opposite perspective is to zoom out to the very long term, which helps to get some context as to where we are in this daily frenzy of contemporary events.
One of my favourite sources for the long term view is Aldo Leopold’s idea of Thinking Like A Mountain. Partly because I live on this very special and rather unusual mountain called Carningli.
According to geologists, Carningli was formed as a volcanic eruption, some 450 million years ago.
Of course, of the approximately 7.5 billion (and rising rapidly) humans alive on the planet at this moment, only a small fraction are able to conceive of this kind of time frame and global prehistory, and a few will reject the science completely and adhere to Bishop Usher’s biblical calculation, that came up with an Earth that is only six thousand years old.
Explorers and naturalists kept logs of their journeys and discoveries through nature journals.
Drawings and writings were used to describe new species of plants and animals, as well as distribution and behaviors.
Aldo Leopold was a well-known professor, forester, and naturalist who has been called the “Father of Wildlife Ecology”. It is said that he knew more about America‟s wildlife than anyone else of his time.
Aldo grew up in Iowa, but also had the opportunity to work in the southwest
during his time with the Forest Service. Though he had always been interested in the natural world, Aldo‟s respect for the interconnectedness of nature grew during his time here. He later taught the philosophy that people cannot hurt one part of the web of life ecosystem without the rest of the web being affected. This ideal is outlined in his essay “Thinking Like a Mountain”.
In 1935, Aldo and his family bought an old farm in Wisconsin, where he lived until his death in 1948. Here he produced years of nature journals that were published in his book, “The Sand County Almanac” a year after his death (1949). This was one of many books and publications by Aldo Leopold that have had a great influence on wildlife managers, naturalists, and conservationists ever since.
It’s not that the short term perspective is wrong or mistaken and the long term perspective is superior, they each have their appropriate applications. If you want to travel to some destination, like from here to London, it’s much more useful to know the distance in miles or kilometres, and the time in hours, rather than millimetres or inches, and seconds and milli-seconds.
But if you have a big picture and long term perspective, it can assist of making some sense of the crazy rush of short term news and events which is being updated every hour.
One benefit that I got from doing zen training and related practices, is that it permits a person to experience an apparent timeless zone, when you enter the various stages of what’s called samadhi or the jhanas. I think that these states are extremely beneficial for physical and mental health, as well as enriching one’s total experience of existence, in fact, one of the best things that I’ve found in my life.
We all strive for safety, prosperity, comfort, long life, and dullness. The deer strives with his supple legs, the cowman with trap and poison, the statesman with pen, the most of us with machines, votes, and dollars, but it all comes to the same thing: peace in our time. A measure of success in this is all well enough, and perhaps is a requisite to objective thinking, but too much safety seems to yield only danger in the long run. Perhaps this is behind Thoreau’s dictum: In wildness is the salvation of the world. Perhaps this is the hidden meaning in the howl of the wolf, long known among mountains, but seldom perceived among men.
There’s no doubt that I am closer to the end of my life than to the beginning. My health is poor, and my right leg is terrible, getting worse not better, so I have several appointments coming up to visit the specialists at the hospital.
I’ll keep doing these essays for as long as I can, and with a bit of luck my health will improve and I’ll be around for a long time into the future.
This essay, such as it is, has been an uphill struggle. My faculties are not as good as they were before the stroke, I’m optimistic that they’ll continue to improve, and I suppose I must be grateful that I survived and have as much functioning as remains.
So, dear readers, friends, enemies, frenemies, that’s all for now, and back to posting the news snippets of interest that attract my attention…. 🙂