Lascaux, Mara’s Wave, Mezin, Dream of the Rood

 

 

 

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In the hospital yard there stands a small lodge surrounded by a perfect forest of burdocks, nettles, and wild hemp. Its roof is rusty, the chimney is tumbling down, the steps at the front-door are rotting away and overgrown with grass, and there are only traces left of the stucco. The front of the lodge faces the hospital; at the back it looks out into the open country, from which it is separated by the grey hospital fence with nails on it. These nails, with their points upwards, and the fence, and the lodge itself, have that peculiar, desolate, God-forsaken look which is only found in our hospital and prison buildings.

If you are not afraid of being stung by the nettles, come by the narrow footpath that leads to the lodge, and let us see what is going on inside. Opening the first door, we walk into the entry. Here along the walls and by the stove every sort of hospital rubbish lies littered about. Mattresses, old tattered dressing-gowns, trousers, blue striped shirts, boots and shoes no good for anything — all these remnants are piled up in heaps, mixed up and crumpled, mouldering and giving out a sickly smell.

The porter, Nikita, an old soldier wearing rusty good-conduct stripes, is always lying on the litter with a pipe between his teeth. He has a grim, surly, battered-looking face, overhanging eyebrows which give him the expression of a sheep-dog of the steppes, and a red nose; he is short and looks thin and scraggy, but he is of imposing deportment and his fists are vigorous. He belongs to the class of simple-hearted, practical, and dull-witted people, prompt in carrying out orders, who like discipline better than anything in the world, and so are convinced that it is their duty to beat people. He showers blows on the face, on the chest, on the back, on whatever comes first, and is convinced that there would be no order in the place if he did not.

Ward No. 6

Anton Chekhov

http://www.eldritchpress.org/ac/jr/166.htm

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596 registered… I know, I know, ‘wtf !’ you’ll be muttering…. well, no, that’s what I’d be muttering, you people are mostly very polite, well brought up, civilised, you’ll be muttering ‘My goodness, how extraordinary, that’s very strange, I’m sure the number was higher…‘ and you’d be right !

No need to rush off to check. I can confirm that you are an astute, alert, observant, reader who is paying very careful attention to what goes on here… the sort of person that I like to register here, in fact, and that the missing hundred are the sort of not-people who sent me spam, so they have been annihilated 🙂 It’s not really a problem, it doesn’t stick, just bounces into the trash…. but they are deleted and vanished into oblivion anyway…. for all of eternity… There are usually around 60 visitors most days, sometimes that has doubled, if someone posts a link somewhere that gets attention.

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So….. all of you, who creepeth upon the face of the Earth, and ponder your being and fate, and call here to find out, from ulvfugl, what happens when the cutting edge meets the point of the needle…

I came across this story of a journalist who is being sponsored to spend seven years walking from Ethiopia to the tip of South America, retracing the journey of early humans out of Africa and around the world.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-20902355

I suppose that is of rather slight interest, the reason it appears here, is because it represents the mainstream scientific consensus view, and it provides a handy map that I can refer to, with regard to what I want to write about, which mostly concerns prehistoric, and historical, shamanism.

There are quite valid and understandable objections as to the ways that the terms ‘shaman’ and ‘shamanism’ are being used, however, anthropologists have taken up the term to apply it in general sense, to the cultural phenomenon, which is seen worldwide, even though it was originally specifically a Siberian word, and now it’s entered into popular culture, and there’s no way anybody can limit its usage, so we have to live with that, like it or not. Trawling through the results of web searches, it’s obvious that the term is being abused in various ways, and exploited, because it carries a certain mystique that people find intriguing. I hope I don’t add to that shallow commercialisation and commodification, that’s not my intention here.

So, as far as I know, shamanism begins in Africa, as the natural spiritual understanding that our ancestors had, as they evolved from more ancient forms.

Then, there are people coming out of Africa, at various periods. That map relates to the most recent, the ones recognised to be most closely related to modern human, but more ancient forms came out of Africa hundreds of thousands of years earlier. They had fire, stone tools, and I think, language. Maybe they had shamans of a sort as well.

With so little evidence, there’s not much point in guessing, it’s bad enough if we start from 50 or 80 thousand years ago.

Anyway, the map with the guy walking.

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If he had turned left, anytime, for much of the last few tens of thousands of years, Europe was covered in deep ice. So there was not much going on, except maybe around the fringes of the ice, where people could have lived as the Inuit do, or did.

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http://www.diercke.com/kartenansicht.xtp?artId=978-3-14-100790-9&stichwort=modern%20man&fs=1

But in those days, population levels, globally, were very low. So why would anybody need to go to very extreme environments to survive ? I don’t know. I don’t think they would.

Anyway, we know something. Because, there’s the cave art. This is a fantastic website, for Lascaux. And almost 100% certain, imagery of shamanism.

http://www.lascaux.culture.fr/index.php#/fr/02_00.xml

As the ice sheets retreated, and the climate changed, and sea levels rose, people were able to move into Europe, following the animals.

And, we can maybe get a glimpse of the beliefs and understandings of those people, from the few fragments that have survived.

In the present territories of Lithuania and Latvia archaeologists find habitation sites established eleven or twelve thousand years ago, at the end of a 60,000 year long glacial period during which the Baltic region was under the ice sheet at least for three long periods.  With the recession of the ice, the land gradually turned into tundra with herds of reindeer going further north in the summer.  Reindeer were followed by hunters who left their permanent settlements somewhere in the northern parts of Europe.  

These were men of the Paleolithic Swiderian and Magdalenian cultures, armed with spears, bows and flint-head arrows, bone and horn harpoons, and stone slings, and followed by their domesticated dogs.  Art finds that reflect the spiritual world of Paleolithic man are scarce.  However, burial grounds of that period have survived to the present day.  The fact that ancient people were buried together with their clothes, decorations, daily-life utensils, as an extension of the earth, may also appear in the Paleolithic, the starry sky being inhabited by different animals, while the Sun and the Moon were symbolically imagined as deer.

“In the Mesolithic (7500-3500 B.C.) the Baltic area was gradually covered by forests with abundant fauna.  The people of the Nemunas and Kunda cultures who inhabited these forests lived on hunting, fishing and gathering the food that nature provided.  From that period, a number of artifacts, made of bone and decorated with ornaments demonstrating some king of symbolic script, have survived to our day.  Among them is the symbol of the Sun, a circle, and the symbol of fire, a cross with arms of equal length.  It is quite probable that the myth of European and Asian peoples that explains the world as formed from a duck egg, originated in the Mesolithic, or even earlier . . .”

Don’t know where he gets that ‘duck egg’, never heard of that before. But the symbols are fascinating.

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Balts4

http://linearpopulationmodel.blogspot.co.uk/2014/01/the-cosmology-of-ancient-balts.html

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http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu//full/1997JHAS…28…57S/0000078.000.html

Mara’s Sash was made in the 18th century. It has 49 different symbols, which correspond to the number of the phases of the Moon in a year, thus is some kind of the lunar calendar. In this calendar the year starts with the spring, i.e. with the beginning of the new life cycle of nature. The main holidays of the year are denoted by special signs. A Lithuanian version of such a sash exists, with 12 symbols. The sequence of symbols in a sash in Lithuanian is called “raštas” The same word is used to denote the idea of “writing”. Therefore, the ornament of a sash can also be understood as the remains of a pictographic writing which might have been used long ago….

Symbolic representation of heavenly bodies and atmospheric phenomena used by the Balts. The symbols of the Moon and its phases in the ornaments of wooden, metallic and crochet artifacts imply the flow of time and are a first step to the calendar. Of particular interest is the cyclic repetition of the three phases of the Moon alongside other symbols, observed in the Baltic woven patterned sashes. These sashes were used to girdle an infant or an adult on certain occasions when the individual was extending the best wishes for the other member of the community. The sash symbolizes the continuous flow of time and offers wishes for a long life.

 

Headdress_God_&_waveOn the right is an enlargement of the young woman’s headdress. Notice the two rows of zigzags, one row near the bottom, and one in the middle: they are examples of “Mara’s Wave”. The yellow, bushy pyramid on top is an embellished version of “God’s Sign”.

God's_Sign 

On the left we see “God’s Sign”. This sign represents Dievs. This word originally derived from an old (i.e. Proto-Indo-European) root deiw- meaning ‘to shine’. It gave rise to the noun deiwos, the name of a sky god. In Latvian this developed into the word dievs.

When Christian missionaries were attempting to convert the pagan Latvians, they chose the name of the sky God, Dievs, to represent the Christian God. It is still used in this meaning to the present day. However, in Latvian tradition this symbol originally represented the sky, conceived of as a roof over the earth.

Mara's_Wave

 

The symbol at the right is called Mara’s Wave or Mara’s Zigzag. It represents the goddess Mara’s domain over all the waters, the rivers, lakes, and seas.

Mara had a number of functions. She was the goddess who was responsible for the land, the waters, and every living thing. In particular, she was the protector of women, especially mothers, and children.

She is strongly associated with childbirth; children are said to enter the world “through the gates of Mara”. Mara is also linked with death, and often takes the form of black animals such as ravens or black hens.

 http://latvianstuff.com/Pagan_design_elements.html

 When you look at these peoples, of northern and central Europe, prior to the arrival of christianity, it appears to me, that they ALL had belief systems which were very closely related, and very likely descended from very ancient palaeolithic roots, and they ALL involved some sort of entities – which I would prefer not to call ‘deities’, although I am obliged to use that word sometimes.

It is a ridiculous word, forced on us by academics who have no idea at all what it means, it’s a place holder for ‘something’, which they have never experienced and cannot define with precision, which they apply to ‘other’ people to explain their ‘peculiar’ ideas and behaviours. None of those ‘other’ people would ever have thought in terms of ‘Hey, let’s go and worship our deity !’ and to even begin to get a bit of a grasp of where they were at, means getting past that stupid notion for a start.

They all had concepts of some sort of spiritual beings that represented, or stood for, wild nature, the forests, rivers, animals, and to which, or to whom, they were accountable. And they feared and respected, those concepts, those entities.

For just one example

The forest-god of the Sami, Laib olmai ruled over all forest animals, which were regarded as his herds, and luck in hunting, or the reverse, depended on his good will. His favour was so important that, according to one author, they made prayers and offerings to him every morning and evening.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sami_shamanism

Christianity destroyed and still destroys those ‘deities’, ridicules them, demonises them, denigrates them, and thus wild nature is removed of protection and can be raped and pillaged and desecrated. This didn’t just happen in Europe of course, that’s just the first place that it happened. Christians have taken that same hateful toxic destructive ideology worldwide.

Here is a mammoth ivory bracelet, from a site called Mezin, in the Ukraine, which is dated to about 20,000 BC. What’s amazing is that this exact design then turns up, later, in the prehistoric rock art, and so called celtic art, and it is in the Book of Kells, too.

mezinbracelet

http://donsmaps.com/wolfcamp.html

It seems to me, that the God Sign, as a triangle, a symbolic roof, representing the sky, ‘the heavens above’, as explained by the Latvian tradition, is just the same as the far eastern Mongolian Tengrist concept of their supreme deity, which is not personified, as any sort of ‘super human’, in the way that the christian god has come to be, but is conceived of as the clear blue sky which is above everything.

And then, Mara’s Wave. Mara would appear to be another name for Mokosh, If the Wave represents the supreme Mother Goddess, then the fact that the zig zag design appears on all kinds of artefacts, and on stones in megalithic monuments, also points to that understanding and belief having been widespread since deep into the palaeolithic past, all the way from Ireland to East Asia.

This design, here on a traditional Swedish tapestry, represents the ‘world tree’, in other words, it’s the cosmos, the Universe, ‘Everything’.

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There may have been shamanic rituals at that Mezin site, seems quite likely.

Northern peoples today, such as the Eskimo and Samoyed, always have a dance hut in their villages. This is the same size as a dwelling, but is set aside for song and dance, entertainment and ritual, and is used especially in the festivals of autumn and winter, at the start of the winter hunt.

The site of Mezin in the Ukraine, dating to about 24 000 years ago, contains a mammoth bone hut which may have been devoted to a similar use.

Although the interior space was probably too constricted by roof supports to allow for dancing, the floor appears to have been kept clear of domestic refuse – a sign that it was perhaps used for ritual purposes.

Maybe something like this, but there’s not conclusive evidence. I think it’d need some drum frames, of the kind found frozen on Greenland, which are about 4,500 years old, and show solid evidence of a shamanic tradition. (sorry, my link has gone dead.)

This too, from Wales, recently.

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Decorative wood carving found in Maerdy is believed to be one of the oldest ever recovered in Europe as it dates back 6,270 years, to the Late Mesolithic/Early Neolithic.

http://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/wales-news/one-europes-oldest-decorative-wood-5119290

artmotifs

http://academic.evergreen.edu/m/mabusj/tesc/BSw98/ResII.html

Once you forget about the ‘modern academic’ version of ‘deity’, and get to put your head somewhere nearer the place where our ancestors may have been, seeing the Sun, the Moon, the changing seasons, the passing of time, and then look at these symbols, which are on rocks and others stuff, all over the place…

cairniart

http://www.carrowkeel.com/sites/loughcrew/cairnj.html

Anyway, back to the Salopek guy and his itinerary. Even though Europe was under deep ice, around the Mediterranean and further south was temperate, and also, to the east, into the Asian continent, conditions were different. As far as I can judge, without having made a very deep investigation, that was because of the dryness of the climate, not so much snow fell, so it melted in the summers and didn’t accumulate, so animals and vegetation survived much further north. As did people.

I may be mistaken, but the more I learn, the stronger my impression that we have been given a very distorted picture, because of the American/Anglo/Euro-centric prejudice that has skewed all of science and history. All the emphasis has been on the judaeo-christian and graeco-roman legacy. This hasn’t been helped by the lack of research and information available from the depths of Eurasia and other areas, but now that new material comes to light, my suspicion is, that there was a lot more going on than we have known about hitherto.

This is the Ruthwell Cross, in what is now Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland.

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In the 7th century, the Angles of Northumbria fought their way north, taking lands up to the Firth of Forth. The Angles, Saxons and Jutes had invaded post-Roman Britain from mainland Europe. The pagan Anglo-Saxons were gradually converted to Christianity during the 7th century. The great Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf tells of a pagan hero but it was written by a Christian scribe.

The Angles set up monasteries in the Borders and converted the people to Christianity. At Hoddam, near Dumfries, the Anglians built a wooden monastery with posts, wattle and panels.

The Ruthwell Cross, in Dumfries and Galloway, is a spectacular Anglian high cross. The cross has verses from ‘The Dream of the Rood’ carved into it in Old English runes and Latin. The Kingdom of Rheged was annexed by the Northumbrians c AD 730.

The Angles’ plan to extend their territory northward into Pictland was halted in AD 685 at the Battle of Dunnichen when they were defeated by the Picts. So the Firth of Forth remained their northern boundary until what had been Northumbria became part of England under Alfred the Great’s successors. In 975, King Edgar of England ceded the land between the Forth and Tweed to the Scottish King, Kenneth II.

The Angles would eventually give their name to England – the ‘land of the Angles’.

http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/scotlandshistory/britonsgaelsvikings/anglesnorthumbrians/index.asp

The Ruthwell Cross is a dramatically imposing piece of stone. It stands some 5.2m or 17ft tall, which in itself presents something of an enigma. The crispness of the surviving original carving on the cross suggests it spent much of its life sheltered from the elements. Yet it is difficult to imagine a cross of this size being seen as a comfortable decoration in anything but an exceptionally large Dark Age building. There is a traditional story that the cross was originally sited on the shore of the Solway Firth at a place called Priestside, a mile and a half south of Ruthwell Church.

It is pure speculation, but it is tempting to tie the traditional location story with the placename and come up with the idea of an early Christian monastery on the shore of the Solway Firth at Priestside, with its location marked by a large cross of the sort that became such a feature of Columba’s monastery at Iona.

Ruthwell Parish Church has at its heart a medieval building, and we know for sure that the Ruthwell Cross stood in the church in 1600. It is more speculation, but it seems reasonable to suggest that it had done so since the church was built, perhaps in the 1200s.

The early Presbyterian Kirk in Scotland took a pretty fundamentalist view of life, and it is of great regret that its major contribution to world art and culture was to destroy as much of it as was within reach. Much that was important and beautiful was lost during the latter half of the 1500s, following the Reformation, and in the 1600s, and succeeding generations in Scotland have been spiritually poorer as a result. In 1640 the General Assembly of the Kirk decreed that the “many idolatrous monuments erected and made for religious worship” should be destroyed. In response to this edict the Ruthwell Cross was defaced and broken up in 1642, its pieces being buried in the clay floor of the church.

The church was extensively remodelled in 1801-3 and it appears that during this process the pieces of the cross were recovered and placed in the churchyard. In 1818 the Parish Minister, the Reverend Henry Duncan, collected together all the available pieces of the cross and paid for it to be reassembled, with broken or missing pieces replaced.

http://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/ruthwell/ruthwellcross/

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Apparently, the Runic text on the cross tells the Dream of the Rood, which is the story of Jesus’s Crucifixion as told by the tree that was felled and used for making the cross.

The central motif appears to be the Tree of Life, in this case, rather vine-like, with the birds which are typically featured living in it and flying up and down, as messengers between the tiers. So, it is the pagan imagery, as we find from Scandinavia and the Baltic countries, throughout pre-christian Germanic and Slavic cultures, and far beyond into Asia and North Africa.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dream_of_the_Rood

At the centre of the cross, on one side, appears to be the Sun, and on the other, the triangular God Sign, that we have earlier encountered in the Lithuanian symbols.

http://www.megalithic.co.uk/modules.php?op=modload&name=a312&file=index&do=showpic&gid=183&pid=31960&orderby=dateD

http://www.megalithic.co.uk/modules.php?op=modload&name=a312&file=index&do=showpic&gid=183&pid=31920&orderby=dateD

The Salopek guy should really have planned to go much further north.

The Altai and surrounding regions are still relatively unexplored, and like any centre, that, seems to me, is where the most interesting developments tend to take place, because of the 360 degree effect, with people and ideas coming in from all directions. Whereas, out on the margins, culture works somewhat differently.

So, the Denisova Cave.

In the Altay Mountains of southern Siberia, some 200 miles from where Russia touches Mongolia, China, and Kazakhstan, nestled under a rock face about 30 yards above a little river called the Anuy, there is a cave called Denisova. It has long attracted visitors. The name comes from that of a hermit, Denis, who is said to have lived there in the 18th century. Long before that, Neolithic and later Turkic pastoralists took shelter in the cave, gathering their herds around them to ride out the Siberian winters. Thanks to them, the archaeologists who work in Denisova today, surrounded by walls spattered with recent graffiti, had to dig through deep layers of goat dung to get to the deposits that interested them. But the cave’s main chamber has a high, arched ceiling with a hole near the top that directs shimmering shafts of sunlight into the interior, so that the space feels holy, like a church.

In the back of the cave is a small side chamber, and it was there that a young Russian archaeologist named Alexander Tsybankov was digging one day in July 2008, in deposits believed to be 30,000 to 50,000 years old, when he came upon a tiny piece of bone. It was hardly promising: a rough nubbin about the size and shape of a pebble you might shake out of your shoe. Later, after news of the place had spread, a paleoanthropologist I met at Denisova described the bone to me as the “most unspectacular fossil I’ve ever seen. It’s practically depressing.” Still, it was a bone. Tsybankov bagged it and put it in his pocket to show a paleontologist back at camp.

The bone preserved just enough anatomy for the paleontologist to identify it as a chip from a primate fingertip—specifically the part that faces the last joint in the pinkie. Since there is no evidence for primates other than humans in Siberia 30,000 to 50,000 years ago—no apes or monkeys—the fossil was presumably from some kind of human.

http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/07/125-missing-human-ancestor/shreeve-text

article-2092258-1179D0B6000005DC-526_468x295 

And then there is this, because if it is correct, this is the place from which the people that Salopek is supposed to be tracking actually came from.

Native Americans actually came from a tiny mountain region in Siberia, DNA research reveals

Altai in southern Siberia sits right at the centre of Russia. But the tiny, mountainous republic has a claim to fame unknown until now – Native Americans can trace their origins to the remote region.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2092258/Native-Americans-actually-came-tiny-mountain-region-Russia-DNA-research-reveals.html

It says there that a study of genetic markers in DNA showed that the lineage of Native Americans changed around 13-14,000 years ago when people are thought to have walked across the ice of the Bering Strait from Siberia to America

Well, not exactly. Because…

The human journey from Asia to the New World was interrupted by a 20,000-year layover in Beringia, a once-habitable region that today lies submerged under the icy waters of the Bering Strait.

Furthermore, the New World was colonized by approximately 1,000 to 5,000 people — a substantially higher number than the 100 or fewer individuals of previous estimates.

The developments, to be reported by University of Florida Genetics Institute scientists in the open-access journal PLoS ONE on February 13, help shape understanding of how the Americas came to be populated — not through a single expansion event that is put forth in most theories, but in three distinct stages separated by thousands of generations.

“Our model makes for a more interesting, complex scenario than the idea that humans diverged from Asians and expanded into the New World in a single event,” said Connie Mulligan, Ph.D., an associate professor of anthropology at the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and assistant director of the UF Genetics Institute. “If you think about it, these people didn’t know they were going to a new world. They were moving out of Asia and finally reached a landmass that was exposed because of lower sea levels during the last glacial maximum, but two major glaciers blocked their progress into the New World. So they basically stayed put for about 20,000 years. It wasn’t paradise, but they survived. When the North American ice sheets started to melt and a passage into the New World opened, we think they left Beringia to go to a better place.”

UF scientists analyzed DNA sequences from Native American, New World and Asian populations with the understanding that modern DNA is forged by an accumulation of events in the distant past, and merged their findings with data from existing archaeological, geological and paleoecological studies.

The result is a unified, interdisciplinary theory of the “peopling” of the New World, which shows a gradual migration and expansion of people from Asia through Siberia and into Beringia starting about 40,000 years ago, a long waiting period in Beringia where the population size remained relatively stable, and finally a rapid expansion into North America through Alaska or Canada about 15,000 years ago.

http://phys.org/news122101269.html#nRlv

But…

After the Last Glacial Maximum some 15,000 to 17,000 years ago, one group entered North America from Beringia following the ice-free Pacific coastline, while another traversed an open land corridor between two ice sheets to arrive directly into the region east of the Rocky Mountains. (Beringia is the landmass that connected northeast Siberia to Alaska during the last ice age.) Those first Americans later gave rise to almost all modern Native American groups of North, Central, and South America, with the important exceptions of the Na-Dene and the Eskimos-Aleuts of northern North America, the researchers said.

” Recent data based on archeological evidence and environmental records suggest that humans entered the Americas from Beringia as early as 15,000 years ago, and the dispersal occurred along the deglaciated Pacific coastline,” said Antonio Torroni of Università di Pavia, Italy. “Our study now reveals a novel alternative scenario: Two almost concomitant paths of migration, both from Beringia about 15,000 to 17,000 years ago, led to the dispersal of Paleo-Indians—the first Americans.”

Such a dual origin for Paleo-Indians has major implications for all disciplines involved in Native American studies, he said. For instance, it implies that there is no compelling reason to presume that a single language family was carried along with the first migrants.

When Columbus reached the Americas in 1492, Native American occupation stretched from the Bering Strait to Tierra del Fuego, Torroni explained. Those native populations encompassed extraordinary linguistic and cultural diversity, which has fueled extensive debate among experts over their interrelationships and origins.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news150642011.html#jCp

Possibly much of that remains disputed and contentious, judging from comments on webpages, and new research will alter the picture. Maybe. I am not sufficiently equipped with understanding the technicalities involved with the DNA and statistics to be able to make any informed judgement, and am unlikely to acquire mastery and expertise in that area, so I observe from the sidelines. But back to Eur-Asia.

The remote regions of Mongolia, Siberia, and throughout the Russian Federation remain poorly explored and are littered with masses of all kinds of ancient remains which have not been scientifically documented or properly recorded by archaeologists, so there are bound to be many surprises if and when the work proceeds.

I found this intriguing

(it’s autotranslated)

Twenty-three years ago, in 1992 during the excavation of archaeological expedition of the Leningrad regional museum center Neolithic settlement Zabelina Boksitogorsky district, under the direction of Yuri Urbana were found traces of habitation fatyanovtsev.

In particular have found samples of ceramics Fatyanovo spherical vessels, decorated with typical ornamental composition, namely: 5 fragments of the corolla with the neck and 43 fragments of various sizes of the body there.

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As an archaeologist Yuri knew that during the Bronze Age culture media Fatyanovo, which was a common tribal Corded Ware culture and the Corded Ware, constantly vying for ownership of the land, and occupied a vast territory from Denmark to Kama, from Scandinavia to the Carpathians and from Vologda area to Penza. Seen inscriptions on Fatyanovo vessel did not cause much surprise among the participants of the expedition. But the very discovery of pottery Corded Ware culture in the territory of the taiga of the Northwest became a kind of surprise. What did the tribes fatyanovtsev in these areas? Conquered the land, or it does ancient writing unexplored culture so similar to Fatyanovo ornamental composition?

At the end of the expedition archeologist material sent to the laboratory, where they were made all the necessary studies, including the bar and studied ornamental fragments Fatyanovo vessel.

After passing a series of examinations, opened a sensational truth – that first receives just for ornament, was the oldest written language in Europe . This shocking fact in summer 1998 N. Urban publicly announced on regional radio.

When gluing the three fragments was able to restore the upper part of the vessel. As we can see in the figure on the very bottom of the neck and the top of the body marked two rows of inclined cuts, forming a “Christmas” ornament. The very inscription is on the neck of the vessel above cuts. All incisions are applied on the clay before firing a sharp object.

108173_original

Studying the inscription, were identified individual dashes, falling out of the total, as indicated by archaeologists “grid” of what has been suggested that the role played by dashes separating characters, like “Virama” ancient Indian writing, talking about what text be read from left to right.

108501_originalDuring the study of inscriptions, succeeded in isolating five complete layers of text, which was revealed 31 mark ancient letter and 4 special dashes.

Corded Ware culture, many researchers refer to the Indo-European ethnic group. Based on this fact, the archaeologist has suggested that the inscription on the Fatyanovo vessel made an Indo-European language.

Depth analysis of the information obtained in the examination, comparing text with various writings of antiquity, N. Urban concludes: “The newly discovered ancient writings are not completely matched with any of the known science of writing systems, such as: Proto, protohettskih and Cretan linear letter “ . We know from history that writing has appeared in about 3300 BC in Sumer, to 3000 BC in Egypt, 2000 BC in China at the time when people became existing methods lack the information transmission. In all regions, this process went the same pattern: from drawings to written symbols – icon who transformed into a graphical system, characters, and then the alphabet (the latter came from the Phoenicians in 1 millennium BC.).

Scientists note picture writing turns into a graphics language, not when disappearing figures (for example, in Egypt used the drawings, but it is not picture writing), and when we can guess what language the text is written.

The inscription on pottery fragments found in the area is dotted Boksitogorsk nature of the image and can lie, due to its historical antiquity and of belonging to the Indo-Europeans (fatyanovtsam), and perhaps of the writing system, which told Academician V. Danilov work “Aryan Empire. The death and rebirth “ . Pre-Christian Slavonic books were made ​​of birch bark, or boards, which were deposited chisel marks, and is called “features and cuts.” Writing, which today is called the Cyrillic alphabet existed in Russia long before Cyril and Methodius.

On the formation of the original writing on the ground among the Slavs and said Yegor Ivanovich Klassen , lecturer, author of scientific and educational books and manuals, the Russian nobleman: “Slavic-Rus, as a people, previously formed by the Romans and Greeks, left on its own in all parts of the Old World many monuments testifying to their stay there and ancient literature, the arts and education. Monuments abide forever irrefutable evidence …

And what was the Slavs literacy not only to the general introduction of Christianity among them, but long before the birth of Christ, in the show acts, erecting Slavic literacy – Russ from the 10th century ago – to ancient times, through the dark periods of history …

Of all, it is clear that the Slavs were not only first letter of all Western European nations, but before the Romans and even the Greeks and that the outcome of education was from Russ to the West, and not from us … “

Who would not build any assumptions and amazing and sensational discoveries in Zabel me a lot of established views on the emergence of writing in ancient peoples.

Introducing a general review the discovery of ancient literature in the North-West of Russia, and in particular in the area Boksitogorsk, Yuri attracted the attention of many researchers. And he says that decipher fragments found on the vessel to whiten possible with painstaking labor and sharing a single scientist and if found pottery fragments with similar characters.

Possible, in Boksitogorsky edge in the deep layers will be found no more evidence of the emergence of writing as a primary source of all letters of mankind. As a consequence, scientists will be able to prove the truth, the Russian language – one of the oldest languages ​​in the world and one of the pillars of all languages.

But as the years go and study – see the startling findings of pottery Fatyanovo spherical vessels, decorated with ancient writing, it is possible to Pikalevo regional museum open to the public domain.

http://anta-rus.livejournal.com/53106.html

And these, for example

444083 444084 444085 444086 444087 444088

So, people have been living on the Eur-Asian continent, for 50,000 years plus, which means they’ve had plenty of time to do all kinds of stuff, and during the climate changes, they had space to move south and then return north again. All along the coldest, harshest northern Arctic circle they’ve found ways to survive, from the north of Norway to Kamchatka, (forgetting about the Americas, for the moment, and also ignoring S E Asia and Australasia, Polynesia, etc) and all those people had shamans and some of the traditions remain intact.

Moving further south, the same thing, the peoples all had shamanic cultures, down to Mongolia, to Nepal and Tibet, all the Turkic peoples, and then across to the Slavic peoples and over into Europe. But then they collide with ‘civilisation’ and the great cultures of the Middle East, of India, of China, based on agriculture, cities, armies, and organised religion that goes with large populations.

And also, as you move further and further south, the climate is very different, the daylength and seasonal changes are different. The rather pure, simple shamanism that’s seen in the northern peoples appears to get swamped and disappears.

However, some argue that shamanism is the root of all the creative cultural aspects of what have come to be called ‘the arts’, as well as other derivative ‘professions’, such as healing, and so forth. But that’s another big topic for some other time.

 

 

 

 

 

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16 Responses to Lascaux, Mara’s Wave, Mezin, Dream of the Rood

  1. ulvfugl says:

    test

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  2. ulvfugl says:

    Post script to the above.

    The earliest fairly solid evidence that I have found for shamanism so far.

    Some 28,000 years ago (23,500 RadioCarbonYearsBeforePresent), a 10-year-old boy began to suffer from an excruciating, even unbearable pain in his hands and legs. He suffered from periostitis, the bone illness. He did not reconcile himself with his fate, learned how to defeat his pain, grew up into a strong man and become a shaman because of his abilities and qualities. He possessed a fascinating cap sewn with some 600 shells (of the Dentalium badense), big stone pectorals, a figurine of a man, many discs made of various materials and several animal skulls. When he died, the survivors broke his drumstick, and one of its parts was placed to his grave together with the other things that he was using. It is possible that they placed the other part on the grave together with the drum. Such a custom is still alive in some Arctic communities. Although the artefacts in the burial remind of those of the Pavlovian and the burial itself was considered to be the oldest one of a shaman, the radiocarbon dating shows that it was more recent and belonged to the Kostenki-Willendorf culture.

    shaman

    http://www.anthropark.wz.cz/pavlova.htm

    Another astonishing thing that I discovered at that website, which gives a good timeline for the movement of people into Europe, is that these people, mammoth hunters of Moravia, northern Austria and southern Poland, about 29,000 – 25,000 years ago, were heating their homes by burning COAL from a surface outcrop !

  3. ulvfugl says:

    Here’s how the contemporary younger generation of British academic archaeologists are tending to interpret this stuff…

    There are several ornaments and objects placed with the The Red Man of Paviland that points to a shamanic burial. The first, as already mentioned, is the ochre staining. Red Ochre is often used as body paint or to adorn costumes, fabrics, or power objects in preparation for the most sacred rituals of many cultures. Ochre is also used for healing directly – as it is strikingly similar to blood.

    The second object that may be significant is the shell necklace. Shells are frequently incorporated into shamanic costume along with other beads and bones, but also organic objects like feathers, grasses and wood – pieces of which may have originally been placed with the body, but have disappeared long ago. Come and try your hand at making a shell necklace with us at our festival stand this summer.

    The third and most suggestive shamanic object is the ivory present within the burial. This particular ivory object may have been used as a staff or rod, a characteristic shamanic object. Shamans are known to work with powerful objects such as staffs, and through these objects it is possible to amplify the available spiritual power.

    For many cultures, the shaman’s staff is a representation of the connection between the realms of upper, middle and lower worlds and functions as a model of the World Tree. As with all true power objects, the staff becomes a living presence. As such, it is a catalyst for change and transformation – even capable of working on it’s own on behalf of the shaman.

    The staff or power object may also be decorated with special symbols, talismans and carvings which are connected to the shaman’s own power, (see also the engraved Palaeolithic Kendrick’s cave horse jaw from north Wales). Through this the staff functions as an energy conduit between the up above and down below worlds. It is a stand-in for the Axis Mundi, which is at the centre of a shamanic tiered world (similar to the Christian tiered world of Heaven, Earth and Hell). For more information see ‘What is a shaman?’

    https://guerillaarchaeology.wordpress.com/resources/the-red-man-of-paviland-a-palaeolithic-shaman/

  4. wren-- says:

    Thank you ulvfugl for another essay full of wonder.
    I am intrigued with the concept of sound (or frequencies) as an organizing force.
    For instance, cats purr not only when happy, but also when injured or ill.
    Some call this ‘stress purring’, and attribute it to dementia or confusion in the fog of pain, but it is in fact a form of self medication.
    Humans, not having the ability to purr, must create their own sonic cleansing.
    Chanting, or creating internal vibrations is one way.
    Or we can explore ways of sonic cleansing externally.

    The gong, like making the finest of damascus steel blades, must be hammered, forged, and heated to the point of re-arranging molecular bonds so that it can be worked yet again and again without cracking or breaking. Once the final from is achieved, it is hammered yet again to the point of perfect temper.
    This is where the saying comes from about not losing your temper. If the metal is fully annealed, it will bend permanently, losing itself. On the opposite end, worked beyond the perfect temper, it will break from stress fractures.
    Perfect temper is achieved after much working, and the molecules of the tempered metal are arranged and bonded to each other in a way that gives both strength and flexibility….. and a resonance of sound vibration:

    From wiki:
    “Gongs produce two distinct types of sound. A gong with a substantially flat surface vibrates in multiple modes, giving a “crash” rather than a tuned note. This category of gong is sometimes called a tam-tam to distinguish it from the bossed gongs that give a tuned note. In Indonesian gamelan ensembles, some bossed gongs are deliberately made to generate in addition a beat note in the range from about 1 to 5 Hz. The use of the term “gong” for both these types of instrument is common.
    The gong is also related spiritually to the word Om and therefore controls wavelength of both time and space.”

  5. ulvfugl says:

    Thanks, wren.

    There will be a delay before comments appear, because I have to approve them first, and sometimes am slow to notice, or even asleep 🙂

  6. ulvfugl says:

    autotranslated.

    Gong sound interacts with space in a special way: the tool has the ability to vibrate a long time after the impact. Picking up sound waves and removed. Yogi Bhajan called a recurring gong sound “before – sound” – “sound without boundaries and limitations that vibrates, creating light and life.”
    Gong produces “boomerang effect” – a complex of mixed overtones. Sound waves covering each other, creating new complex tone, and it makes the sound volume and so unpredictable that it goes beyond a certain rhythmic organization. The human mind is unable to predict what will be the sound, so during a session of the gong – meditation, people often haunted by the sounds of bells, drums, harp, mining and even hear voices – a searching mind tries to understand what it’s like sound.
    In fact, individual perception of sound is under a physiological basis. At the sound of the gong a so-called combination tones that are formed directly in the auditory system. Just they are responsible for the dual perception of sound that, from the point of view of experts in acoustics, is a real phenomenon.
    When the sound of the gong vibrates, making waves with a frequency close to 7.4 Hz. These waves give rise to oscillations binaural. These frequencies have a synchronizing effect on the hemisphere of the brain, harmonizing state of mind.

    Who buzzing? The first mention of the gong meditation as an integral part of yoga practice are found at the beginning of the XIV century, in his treatise “Hatha Yoga Pradipika.” The author of the yogi Svatmarama describes the steps that the sadhaka passes on the way to enlightenment. One of the main stages – it is the experience of “hearing” secret sounds to awaken the sacred Kundalini energy.

    “As the concentration – writes Svatmarama – internal sounds are becoming more and more evident. In the first stage, they are perceived as sound of the ocean. Among the roar of the waves Yogi begins to hear the roar of drums, is converted into a buzz shells, bell and tube. This is followed by the awakening of anahata – heart center, and at this point the yogi hears “gong explodes in the center of the sun.” Gradually the sound of the gong is dissolved, and the yogi, feeling only a slight buzzing bees, immersed in a trance state completely. ”

    Focusing on the sound, when everything else disappears and only a controlled state of bliss, is the essence of Laya Yoga – the yoga of awareness. Trans Gong – a powerful tool whose sound is easily introduced into a trance whole groups of people. Why is this happening? According to the philosophy of Nada Yoga, unusual gong sound waves have a magical ability to stop the fluctuations of the mind. As a result, the listener as it appears in the “zero point” – a state called yogis sunya – “Blessed are nothing.”

    In the practice of Kundalini Yoga gong enjoys great respect: he is considered the “materialization of the original sound.” Another Yogi Bhajan said that “the first and the last tool in people’s lives, as its sound is really capable of commanding the human mind.”
    Unfortunately, the sound of the gong, recorded on audio – video carriers or loses its unique properties. And because the combination of colors is perceived individually and depends on the psychological state of the listener during meditation, pass it outside the class is impossible. Perhaps that is why many people describe the sound of a gong in the record as “flat, devoid of consciousness powerful transforming effect” that occurs during a live performance.

    According to the observations of Yogi Bhajan, the mind surrenders under the influence of the gong fast enough. To do this, you just need to concentrate on the sound of three to 90 seconds. The impact force peak of popularity gong meditation in the modern world came in the 70s of XX century – a period marked by the sexual revolution and the rise of drug addiction in the West. To help students, the nervous system which has been depleted as a result of drug use, Yogi Bhajan blessed leading masters of Kundalini Yoga different countries use in therapeutic practice gong. By working with drug addicts students, Yogi Bhajan discovered that the sound of the gong removes the effects of withdrawal symptoms, helping to quickly adapt to the outside world.

    Let’s start first Hong -meditatsii in our country, available to all, and even included in the compulsory program of practice. During classes Kundalini Yoga gong is most often used at the end of class, when the physical body is prepared series of movements, exercises and breathing techniques, called kriyami. The relationship of Kundalini Yoga and gong – a continuation of the union mantra and music as a natural part of the practice.

    Teachings of Yogi Bhajan is based on the audio stream, the power of words, mantras and eternal vibration. To understand this, it is sufficient to recall the words of the Master. If you meditate on the original sound, – he said – you will see the invisible, inaudible hear, feel imperceptible. Hong belongs to the family of musical instruments, known as idiophones, or “self-sounding” instruments. Idiophones produce sound by rubbing or hitting without additional interventions or materials. sounding material is the source of the sound vibrations simultaneously receive and transmit acoustic energy. Gong and bells – the ancient idiophones. Among the more modern idiophone – xylophone, cymbals, castanets. gongs are usually made ​​of metal, have a rounded shape. Traditionally used for producing bronze gongs, although they may use other metals such as bronze bell in India, in Africa wrought iron, gold China silver Tibet.

    Typically, gongs are made ​​of an alloy of copper and 70-80% 20-30 % tin and addition of lead, nickel, iron or zinc. The lower the quality of the instrument, the more it tin content and less copper. Gongs with a flat surface of an uncertain pitch, and in East Asia they are called male gongs. Convex have a certain pitch and is traditionally referred to as female. In China, used and flat, convex and gongs, the islands of Southeast Asia and Africa – convex, and in India – flat. The average size of gongs used in the West, varies between 50 centimeters and 1 meter in diameter. For the production of sound used a hammer or mallet.
    The musical traditions of the island of Java are an exception – there is a gong made ​​punch. History gong gong appearance of prototypes, likely refers to the time when people learned to smelt metal and work with bronzes.

    Historians claim that the first gong originated in China and was a bronze plate, which struck during the war to refer to the signal to attack or retreat. This happened in the II century BC According to one of the country of origin of ethnographic versions of this tool is called Greece. Researchers believe that the tool has spread to the north-west of India thanks to campaigns of Alexander the Great. Plutarch wrote about the bronze “drums”, used Parthian troops to intimidate the enemy. The Greek instrument called Echion, was indispensable in dramatic productions for the image of thunder gods, or to refer to a climax in the rituals. It is believed that he was a type of gong. The Spartans also used in rituals Echion farewell to the dead. The word “gong” appeared in Europe in the XVI century. It comes from the original name of the Indonesian tool “Bonang” or “Bonang-Bonang.” Danish colonists moved “Bonang Bonang,” as “respects by God”, which is phonetically transformed into a “gong-gong”, and then it was reduced to a capacious word “gong”. Using a gong

  7. wren-- says:

    So interesting U, thanks for the elaboration.
    In the spirit of connecting our selves with the Other, by means of sound, there are also bells.
    For centuries Buddhist monks have made Bonsho temple bells. These huge bells have no clanger, as that would interrupt the perfect space within the bell. The process is quite different from that of making a gong, which is forging, hammering and forming. The bells are cast and come out of the mold ready for finish and patina, although some tempering for sound quality can be achieved at that point by light hammering on the inside, or further ‘heat tempering’. For the temple bells, a two part mold is constructed, complete with detail, and the bronze, which is an alloy of copper and tin, is heated in a huge crucible to the point of being molten, but not beyond. Metal can boil, but this is avoided to preserve the quality of the alloy.
    At this point, the molten metal, being in a state of Alchemical Possibility, prayers written on rice paper or scribed on small metal sheets, are tossed into the ‘melt’. The metal is then poured into the mold.
    I use this technique in my own work. If the piece is a commission, I allow that person to write the prayer, but for most of my work, it is my own special prayer that goes in. The presence of this prayer within the metal can be felt in the finished piece.

  8. ulvfugl says:

    Thanks, Wren.

    Forest, sculpted from cardboard, Eva Jospin, Paris.

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  9. ulvfugl says:

    Kitschy depiction of hell in Buddhist temple in Sri Lanka

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  10. ulvfugl says:

    I have now added a new plug in which I hope will make it easy to add images to comments here… see the new ‘choose file’ option below the text box.

    Youtube videos can be added by pasting the ‘share’ code directly into the text box.

  11. ulvfugl says:

    @ Wren

    I don’t know if you know about Hangs ? I came across them shortly after they were invented, and desired to possess one, but the young couple who made them were totally overwhelmed by the response from the world, and decided to have a year or so off, and the few in existence were therefore very rare and expensive…. and then I moved on to other obsessions…

    “Our concepts, developments and implementations are far from the musical norms of modern times which require study, practice and performance. Playing with this Hang can lead to a form of freedom, an intimate conversation that can only unfold without pressure and coercion. If individuals are aware of this concept, they will be strengthened by this Hang. Thoughtless use can weaken a person.”

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hang_(instrument)

  12. ulvfugl says:

    ewe

    August Friedrich Albrecht Schenck,1828-1901

  13. ulvfugl says:

    Graves of husband and wife, a Protestant and a Catholic, who could not be buried together. c. 1888

    graves

  14. ulvfugl says:

    The whistles of the Mayans are still a mystery to us, and much research would be needed before a better understanding about these musical instruments can be gained. Yet, it may be fair to say that we have made some advances. Instead of perceiving them as merely objects of art, archaeologists are now seeing them as they are – musical instruments. Through these whistles, just as the bronze bells for the Chinese and the flutes for the Romans, we may be able to catch a glimpse of the ideals and beliefs of the Mayans.

    – See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/artifacts-other-artifacts/music-maya-mysterious-whistles-confound-experts-002723#sthash.Qo4ktzR6.dpuf

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