However, following over two years of research into the Newgrange excavation archive and the personal papers of the O’Kelly archive held by the National Monuments Archive Unit, I believe these doubts, criticisms and conspiracy theories can finally be conclusively set aside. I’ve found that the roof-box, including the quartz block it contained, had indeed been well recorded. I have also discovered several previously unrecognised photographs of the surviving quartz block, which appear to have been used to seal the roof-box in the time between the annual winter solstice, actually in situ. Although I first presented these photographs at the ‘Pathways to the Cosmos’ conference at Dublin Castle in September 2018, to my knowledge this is the first time these photographs have been published anywhere.
Fairies are fallen angels who were not bad enough to be sent to hell. God gave them the choice of dwelling in the most beautiful country on earth and they picked Ireland.
A fairy pass was one place where a new house should not be built unless the fairies displeasure was to be incurred.
If a man wanted to build a new house in a particular place, he buried a coin usually a sixpence in the spot. If the coin were gone in a week the fairies did not want the house built but if it remained there it was safe to build.
[…] the faery cows that once came ashore at the Great Rock of MacNicol, on the farm of Scorribreac, in Skye. On this occasion, the entire herd was intercepted in its attempt to return to the sea, by the scattering of earth on the strip of land separating it from the water. In the Highlands and Western Isles it was held that a sprinkling of earth taken from a burying-ground was most efficacious in such circumstances.
Toward the evening of the day on which the faery cattle came ashore at Scorribreac, a voice from the sea was heard calling them back by name. And the names by which they were called were taken down at the time. These names, of course, were in the Gaelic; and the Gaelic rhyme by which they are remembered is still known among those interested in these matters. The rhyme illustrates, moreover, that these faery cows varied considerably in colour. One was brown; and another was black. There was a red one, and a brindled one, and so on. In response to the voice from the sea, the whole herd ultimately returned to its watery element.
For many hundreds of years Skye remained an island isolated from the rest of Scotland. It did not exist in a complete vacuum, as it was settled by both Celts and Norse, and probably by the Picts before them. There were always comings and goings by way of ships and boats from the mainland and abroad. Due to this sea access, Skye became a Viking hot spot, like so many of the other Scottish Isles. Its isolation became more pronounced toward the Industrial Revolution. As mechanized farming equipment, rail roads, and eventually motorways became the norm across mainland Britain, residents of Skye continued using traditional farming methods and modes of transport. It is no wonder, then, that fairy lore lingered on after it had begun to erode elsewhere.
Aillen or Áillen is a legendary being from Irish mythology. He played the harp and was known to sing beautiful songs. He was also called “the burner”, because of his “fiery breath”. He was a member of the Tuatha Dé Danann.
Here is the story about Aillén Mac Midgna – The Fire Breathing Goblin, which was described in the Fenian Cycle of Irish Mythology under The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn.
Aillén Mac Midgna was a fire breathing goblin from the other world, Mag Mell. for 23 years Aillén brought terror to Ireland’s most sacred location, the hill of Tara, the seat of Ireland’s High King.
Each year, on the eve of Samhain, Aillén would arrive at Tara and play the Irish harp with such enthusiasm causing everyone in the immediate area to fall asleep under his spell.
Once Aillén had cast all of the kings guards asleep he would use his fiery breath to set fire to the great halls of Tara with his fire breathing, leaving nothing but burning cinders behind. When done Aillén would return to his fairy mound at sídh Finnachaid leaving the people to rebuild the great halls.
It has long been assumed that Indigenous Australia was isolated until Europeans arrived in 1788, except for trade with parts of present day Indonesia beginning at least 300 years ago. But our recent archaeological research hints of at least an extra 2,100 years of connections across the Coral Sea with Papua New Guinea.
Over the past decade, we have conducted research in the Gulf of Papua with local Indigenous communities.
During the excavations, the most common archaeological evidence found in the old village sites was fragments of pottery, which preserve well in tropical environments compared to artefacts made of wood or bone. As peoples of the Gulf of Papua have no known history of pottery making, and the materials are foreign, the discovered pottery sherds are evidence of trade.
This pottery began arriving in the Gulf of Papua some 2,700 years ago, according to carbon dating of charcoal found next to the sherds.
This is quarter shekel from the British Museum. Struck before 333 BCE, it is considered to be the first Jewish coin. Following the description in Ezekiel of the flying throne of Yahveh with wheels and wings, the image is interpreted as the representation of Yahveh, The God…
Ezekiel is a Hebrew prophet and the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible, which reveals prophecies regarding the destruction of Jerusalem and the first temple.
The author of the Book of Ezekiel presents himself as Ezekiel, the son of Buzzi, born into a priestly (Kohen) lineage. Apart from identifying himself, the author gives a date for the first divine encounter which he presents: “in the thirtieth year”. If this is a reference to Ezekiel’s age at the time, he was born around 622 BCE, about the time of Josiah’s reforms. His “thirtieth year” is given as five years after the exile of Judah’s king Jehoiachin by the Babylonians, which according to Josephus happened in 598 BCE.
The vision Ezekiel had “in his thirtieth year” and which turned him into a prophet was of Jahveh sitting on the throne carried by the “four living creatures”.
The stone circle has several alignments:
1. Alignment with the sunrise on the day of Bealltaine (6th May, middle of Taurus), the Beginning of Summer.
2. Alignment with the sunrise on the day of the Winter Solstice (21st of December).
3. Alignment with the sunrise on the day of Samhain (1st of November, middle of Eagle, Scorpio), the Beginning of Winter.
4. Alignment with the sunrise on the day of the Equinoxes (21st March and 21st September).
So Bronze Age Irish were already aligning their solar circles with the climatic cross at least a thousand years before Ezekiel had his vision of the “four living creatures pulling the throne of god”. How did these symbols which make no sense in Middle East find their way there? Who brought them, when?
Reindeer hunters at Howburn Farm, South Lanarkshire
A Late Hamburgian settlement in southern Scotland – its lithic artefacts and natural environment
In 2006 and 2009, excavations were carried out at Howburn Farm near Biggar, South Lanarkshire. A total of 5,070 lithic artefacts were recovered, including 2,091 pieces of flint, 2,906 pieces of chert, 33 pieces of pitchstone, as well as small numbers of other lithic raw materials. As in this part of Scotland chert usually relates to Mesolithic, Early Neolithic and Early Bronze Age industries (Paterson and Ward 2013), and as it is well known that much flint was imported into southern Scotland from north-east England during the later Neolithic (Ballin 2011b), the various elements of the assemblage were first thought to date to these periods. However, close inspection of the finds, and the identification of diagnostic types and technological attributes of pre-Mesolithic character, showed that probably almost all the flints date to the Late Upper Palaeolithic period (Ballin et al. 2010). It is estimated that approximately half of the lithic artefacts date to the Palaeolithic, and most of the remainder to the Late Mesolithic – Early Neolithic period, supplemented by a small number of later Neolithic and Early Bronze Age pieces.
The substance in question is called 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT), which was initially discovered in the bark of a plant. Researchers later realized the Bufo alvarius toad, more commonly known as the Colorado river toad, secretes a poisonous, milky-white substance in its skin and glands that also contains the 5-MeO-DMT compound.
People who smoke 5-MeO-DMT report having mystical-type experiences, characterized by awe, amazement, intense self-awareness and timelessness, among other effects. Past research has also shown that the compound is associated with a reduction in symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress, and has effectively helped consumers deal with alcoholism and drug abuse.
In the midst of these theories, however, are those that believe in a kind of recycling of consciousness: that individual selves may be reincarnated in new bodies, sometimes retaining scraps of memory – and even physical features – from the lives they lived before. One of the most prominent proponents of that theory was Dr. Ian Stevenson, a psychiatrist who worked for five decades at the University of Virginia’s School of Medicine, where he founded the Division of Perceptual Studies, which studies “phenomena related to consciousness clearly functioning beyond the confines of the physical body, as well as phenomena that are directly suggestive of post-mortem survival of consciousness.” Beginning in 1960, Stevenson traveled the world investigating thousands cases of reincarnation, documenting his findings and eventually writing several books on the subject, including his groundbreaking work Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation and the massive, two-volume Reincarnation and Biology: A Contribution to the Etiology of Birthmarks and Birth Defects. The book documents 200 different cases of children – often from very remote areas of the world – who had memories and birthmarks that corresponded with those of deceased people whose lives they claimed to have lived before. Some, who claimed to have died violently, had birthmarks or physical defects where the deceased had suffered a mortal injury, while others suffered from phobias relating to their past death.
And Mencken once more,
“The Puritan’s utter lack of aesthetic sense, his distrust of all romantic emotion, his unmatchable intolerance of opposition, his unbreakable belief in his own bleak and narrow views, his savage cruelty of attack, his lust for relentless and barbarous persecution—these things have put an almost unbearable burden upon the exchange of ideas in the United States.”
Perhaps remarkably, this is exactly the kind of thing that Peterson rose to fame by furiously attacking in recent years, invoking the kind of radical thinkers, such as Nietzsche and Jung, that Mencken would have, too. And yet Peterson is a Christian, arguing primarily against atheists. What gives?
It gets more bizarre, and definitely more to the annoyance of those who wanted fireworks from this so-called debate. Žižek, the atheist, suggested accepting the following deep spiritual value implicit in Christianity:
“In other religions you have God up there, we fall from God, and we try to climb back through spirituality, training, good deeds and so on. Christianity is totally different. You don’t climb to God. You are free in a Christian sense when you discover that the distance that separates you from God is inscribed into God himself … The crucifixion is something absolutely unique because in that moment of, father, why have you abandoned me?, for a brief moment, symbolically, God himself becomes an atheist, in the sense of getting a gap there. That is something absolutely unique. It means you are not simply separated from God. Your separation from God is a part of divinity itself.”
It was clear that Peterson was struck by both the originality and importance of this insight, took it entirely seriously, and reformulated the core idea in answer to Žižek’s probing criticism of Peterson’s own moral imperative of, “Set your house in perfect order before you criticize the world.” Peterson described Žižek’s interpretation as demonstrating a scarcely believable mercifulness in God, that, “There is something that is built into the fabric of existence that tests us so severely in our faith about being that even God himself falls prey to the temptation to doubt.” And that,
The findings mirror what befell native human populations in the Americas when Europeans arrived but the presence of dogs from East Asia also perhaps offers some clues to where the native human populations there came from originally too.
‘We can use domestic animals as a proxy to try to understand human migrations at quite a granular level,’ added Prof. Larson.
The team have also shown that chickens appear to have been domesticated from wild Red Jungle Fowl in South East Asia during the Bronze Age before flocks spread into China and then later into Europe.
‘What is fascinating is that the relationship between humans and these animals in the past was probably very different from the one we have today,’ said Prof. Larson. ‘Eating chickens is a recent phenomenon, and perhaps only started when they came into Europe in around 700BC. They were probably drawn to humans initially for other reasons (such as easy access to food) and that relationship changed through time.’
Prof. Larson and his colleagues found that changes in human behaviour also had a big impact on the animals they were domesticating. Strict religious dietary restrictions that began to be enforced around 1000AD made it acceptable to eat chickens and their eggs but not meat from four-legged animals during fasting. This led to a sudden leap in the frequency of a gene called TSHR, which is thought to be strongly associated with domestication, in the chicken genome.
An international team of researchers has combined archaeological, historical and linguistic data with genetic information from over 700 newly analyzed individuals to construct a more detailed picture of the history of inner Eurasia than ever before available. In a study published in Nature Ecology & Evolution, they found that the indigenous populations of inner Eurasia are very diverse in their genes, culture and languages, but divide into three groups that stretch across the area in east-west geographic bands.
Inner Eurasia, including areas of modern-day Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan, was once the cross-roads connecting Asia and Europe, and a major intersection for the exchange of culture, trade goods and genes in prehistory and historical periods, including the era of the famous Silk Road.
This vast area can also be divided into several distinct ecological regions that stretch in largely east-west bands across Inner Eurasia, consisting of the deserts at the southern edge of the region, the steppe in the central part, taiga forests further north, and tundra towards the Arctic region. The subsistence strategies used by indigenous groups in these regions largely correlate with the ecological zones, for example reindeer herding and hunting in the tundra region and nomadic pastoralism on the steppe.
To MacFarlane, this image could be “an annunciation scene from Giotto”.
But look more closely – in fact, it’s an “avalanche of vehicles”.
He abseiled down into an abandoned Welsh slate mine where locals have been dumping wrecked cars for 40 years. He says: “We are not just shaping the surface, but shaping the depth.”
Will our future fossils just be “car-chives” like this, along with the inevitable strata of plastic, lethal nuclear waste, and the spines of millions of intensively farmed cows and pigs?
People over the millennia have reported having deeply moving religious experiences either spontaneously or while under the influence of psychedelic substances such as psilocybin-containing mushrooms or the Amazonian brew ayahuasca, and a portion of those experiences have been encounters with what the person regards as “God” or “ultimate reality.” In a survey of thousands of people who reported having experienced personal encounters with God, Johns Hopkins researchers report that more than two-thirds of self-identified atheists shed that label after their encounter, regardless of whether it was spontaneous or while taking a psychedelic.
Moreover, the researchers say, a majority of respondents attributed lasting positive changes in their psychological health–e.g., life satisfaction, purpose and meaning–even decades after their initial experience.
Salient experiences interpreted as personal encounters with God, gods, or emissaries of God, have been documented for millennia, have been integral to the development of religious and spiritual beliefs, and have had a major influence in shaping human culture [1–5]. Such experiences, which often occur unexpectedly and in absence of drugs or physical illness, may involve visions, voices, or what is felt to be a mental or extrasensory apprehension of that which is encountered. Descriptions of such experiences sometimes overlap with mystical-type experiences, which have also been well documented and have been a focus of substantial empirical research [3,6]. The majority of rigorous empirical studies of mystical experiences [7–11] have used the Hood M Scale, which is based on the conceptual model of mystical experience described by Stace  and emphasizes a sense of unity as a central defining characteristic of mystical experience. Stace , but not all scholars of religion , explicitly exclude vision and voice phenomena from the descriptive definition of mystical experience thus suggesting that some God encounter experiences may be more appropriately classified as religious but not mystical experiences.
Lost at the bottom of the North Sea almost eight millennia ago, a vast land area between England and southern Scandinavia which was home to thousands of stone age settlers is about to be rediscovered.
Marine experts, scientists and archaeologists have spent the past 15 years meticulously mapping thousands of kilometres under water in the hope of unearthing lost tribes of prehistoric Britain.
On Wednesday a crew of British and Belgian scientists set off on their voyage across the North Sea to reconstruct the ancient Mesolithic landscape hidden beneath the waves for 7,500 years. The area was submerged when thousands of cubic miles of sub-Arctic ice started to melt and sea levels began to rise.
Some 2,000 years ago, Scotland was home to a group of people known as the Picts. To the Romans who controlled much of Britain at the time, they were but mere savages, men who fought completely naked, armed with little more than a spear. But the Picts were fearsome warriors.
Every time the Roman Empire tried to move into their territory, the Picts successfully fought back. The Roman legions were the greatest military force the world had ever seen and the only people they couldn’t conquer were this wild clan.
Yet despite their formidable warrior culture, the Picts mysteriously vanished during the 10th century. The wild men the Romans could not conquer faded away and barely left behind a trace of their existence. Today, historians still struggle to piece together a glimpse into who the Picts were and what happened to their mighty culture.
The next effect was on the brains of the mice, which led the team to say: “The experiences of a parent, even before conceiving, markedly influence both structure and function in the nervous system of subsequent generations.” This was proven when not just the direct offspring of the mice in question – but their “grandchildren” too – had all inherited this fear of cherry blossom, through the DNA of the parent mice. Dr. Dias said to the BBC: “This might be one mechanism that descendants show imprints of their ancestor. There is absolutely no doubt that what happens to the sperm and egg will affect subsequent generations.”
The team determined that five individuals, including two adults, an adolescent of about 11 years old, and two children of three and six years old, entered the cave barefoot and illuminated the way using wooden sticks. This suggests that young children were active group members during the late Stone Age, even when carrying out apparently dangerous activities.
Here is an interesting puzzle to ponder :
The J haplogroup being found at Crimea AND at Paracas is telling us something. What could account for this ?
Brien Foerster suggests that they (Rothschild-type people with strange skulls) went from the Black Sea region across the Pacific to South America
It’s not just the strange anomaly, that similar peculiar elongated skulls occur at Crimea AND at Paracas, which, on its own, would be interesting. But in addition, there’s the same J haplogroup, AND it’s the Rothschild one !
AND Rothschilds have weirdly shaped heads !
The conventional view is that, over the last 2 or 3 hundred thousand years, there have been ourselves, our species, Homo sapiens sapiens, and also Neanderthals and Denisovans. But perhaps these weird ‘Rothschild’ type skulls are another species or sub-species ?
It’s a sensitive topic, maybe why it’s not discussed openly…
Another odd snippet I found, seems there were some similar people in Appalachia…
A Native American man in Montana has what may be the oldest DNA native to the Americas, according to news reports.
After getting his DNA tested, Darrell “Dusty” Crawford learned that his ancestors were already in the Americas about 17,000 years ago, according to the Great Falls Tribune, a Montana newspaper.
The company Cellular Research Institute (CRI) Genetics traced Crawford’s ancestry back 55 generations with 99% accuracy, a rare feat given how convoluted family trees can be.
The test also revealed the origins of his Blackfeet ancestors. According to his DNA, Crawford’s ancestors are from the Pacific Islands. Then, they journeyed to the South American coast and traveled north, according to a preliminary analysis.
Moreover, CRI Genetics looked at Crawford’s mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), genetic material that is passed down through mothers. An analysis showed that Crawford is part of the mtDNA haplotype B2 group, which originated in Arizona about 17,000 years ago, the Great Falls Tribune reported.
This group is one of the four major Native American groups in North America. These groups are traced back to four female ancestors: Ai, Ina, Chie and Sachi. Crawford appears to be a descendant of Ina.
“Today, this Native American line is found only in the Americas, with a strong frequency peak on the eastern coast of North America,” CRI Genetics reported.
Haplogroup J2 is thought to have appeared somewhere in the Middle East towards the end of the last glaciation, between 15,000 and 22,000 years ago. The oldest known J2a samples at present were identified in remains from the Hotu Cave in northern Iran, dating from 9100-8600 BCE (Lazaridis et al. 2016), and from Kotias Klde in Georgia, dating from 7940-7600 BCE (Jones et al. (2015)). This confirms that haplogroup J2 was already found around the Caucasus and the southern Caspian region during the Mesolithic period. The first appearance of J2 during the Neolithic came in the form of a 10,000 year-old J2b sample from Tepe Abdul Hosein in north-western Iran in what was then the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (Broushaki et al. 2016).
Notwithstanding its strong presence in West Asia today, haplogroup J2 does not seem to have been one of the principal lineages associated with the rise and diffusion of cereal farming from the Fertile Crescent and Anatolia to Europe. It is likely that J2 men had settled over most of Anatolia, the South Caucasus and Iran by the end of the Last Glaciation 12,000 years ago. It is possible that J2 hunter-gatherers then goat/sheep herders also lived in the Fertile Crescent during the Neolithic period, although the development of early cereal agriculture is thought to have been conducted by men belonging primarily to haplogroups G2a (northern branch, from Anatolia to Europe), as well as E1b1b and T1a (southern branch, from the Levant to the Arabian peninsula and North Africa).
Mathieson et al. (2015) tested the Y-DNA of 13 Early Neolithic farmers from the Barcın site (6500-6200 BCE) in north-western Anatolia, and only one of them belonged to haplogroup J2a. Lazaridis et al. (2016) tested 44 ancient Near Eastern samples, including Neolithic farmers from Jordan and western Iran, but only the above-mentioned sample from Mesolithic Iran belonged to J2. Likewise, over 100 Y-DNA samples have been tested from Neolithic Europe, covering most of the important cultures, and only two J2 sample was found, in the Sopot and Proto-Lengyel cultures in Hungary, dating from 7,000 years ago. J2 was also absent from all Chalcolithic and Bronze Age Indo-European cultures, apart from one J2a1b sample in Hungary dating from the end of the Bronze Age (c. 1150 BCE, see Gamba et al. 2014), in the minor Kyjatice culture, an offshoot of the Urnfield culture, which differs from typical Indo-European cultures by its use of cremation instead of single-grave burials.
No Neolithic sample from Central or South Asia has been tested to date, but the present geographic distribution of haplogroup J2 suggests that it could initially have dispersed during the Neolithic from the Zagros mountains and northern Mesopotamia across the Iranian plateau to South Asia and Central Asia, and across the Caucasus to Russia (Volga-Ural). The first expansion probably correlated with the diffusion of domesticated of cattle and goats (starting c. 8000-9000 BCE), rather than with the development of cereal agriculture in the Levant.
A second expansion would have occured with the advent of metallurgy. J2 could have been the main paternal lineage of the Kura-Araxes culture (Late Copper to Early Bronze Age), which expanded from the southern Caucasus toward northern Mesopotamia and the Levant. After that J2 could have propagated through Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean with the rise of early civilizations during the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age.
Quite a few ancient Mediterranean and Middle Eastern civilisations flourished in territories where J2 lineages were preponderant. This is the case of the Hattians, the Hurrians, the Etruscans, the Minoans, the Greeks, the Phoenicians (and their Carthaginian offshoot), the Israelites, and to a lower extent also the Romans, the Assyrians and the Persians. All the great seafaring civilisations from the middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age were dominated by J2 men.
Over more than two centuries, the Rothschild family has frequently been the subject of conspiracy theories. These theories take differing forms, such as claiming that the family controls the world’s wealth and financial institutions or encouraged or discouraged wars between governments.
The Rothschild family, who established an international banking business, acquired the largest fortune in modern world history and established a true dynasty in the 19th century, apparently belonged to haplogroup J2a1-Y23457 (under M67, Z467 and Y15238) based on the results from the Rothschild DNA Project and of the J2-M172 Haplogroup Research.
Around 45,000 years before present, a mutation took place in the DNA of a woman who lived in the Near East or Caucasus. Further mutations occurred in the J line, which can be identified as the subclades J1a1,J1c1 (27,000 yrs ago), J2a (19,000 yrs ago), J2b2 (16,000 years ago), and J2b3 (5,800 yrs ago). Haplogroup J bearers along with persons carrying the T mtDNA clade settled in Europe from the Near East during the late Paleolithic and Mesolithic.
RESEARCH UPDATE: DNA OF PARACAS, HIGHLAND APALACHE, CREEK & AND SOUTH ATLANTIC ELITE TRACED TO REGION AROUND CAUCASUS MOUNTAINS & BLACK SEA
black sea elongated skulls
The origins of Ashkenazi Jews—the great majority of living Jews—remain highly contested and enigmatic to this day. The Ashkenazim are Jews with a recent ancestry in central and Eastern Europe, in contrast to Sephardim (with an ancestry in Iberia, followed by exile after 1492), Mizrahim (who have always resided in the Near East) and North African Jews (comprising both Sephardim and Mizrahim). There is consensus that all Jewish Diaspora groups, including the Ashkenazim, trace their ancestry, at least in part, to the Levant, ~2,000–3,000 years ago5,12,13,14. There were Diaspora communities throughout Mediterranean Europe and the Near East for several centuries prior to the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE (Common Era), and some scholars suggest that their scale implies proselytism and wide-scale conversion, although this view is very controversial
The Ashkenazim are thought to have emerged from dispersals north into the Rhineland of Mediterranean Jews in the early Middle Ages, although there is little evidence before the twelfth century
Haplogroup J comprises 7% of the Ashkenazi control-region database. Around 72% of these can be assigned to J1c, now thought to have arisen within Late Glacial Europe, and 19% belong to J1b1a1, also restricted to Europe. Thus >90% of the Ashkenazi J lineages have a European origin, with ~7% (J1b and J2b) less clearly associated. Many have a probable west/central European source, despite (like H) being most frequent in eastern Ashkenazim. The four Ashkenazi J mitogenomes, in J1c5, J1c7a1a and J1c7d, once again show a striking pattern of Mediterranean, west and central European lineages enclosing Ashkenazi/east European ones
Rothschild DNA Project – Y-DNA Classic Chart
This is my final blogpost. I am old and ill and wish to spend my remaining time doing some other things. (Also, I LOATHE this new version of WordPress.)
Here is my first blog post, May 1st 2012
Thanks to everyone of you who have read and commented since I began this blog, I wish you all well. My blessings to you.